Road Maintenance

Road Maintenance


  In response to the claim for government reorganization and manpower streamlining and to meet the increasing tasks generated by the multiplying growing number of road management tasks over the years as well as guided by the business management concepts introduced from the private sector and eventually lowering the government operation costs, contracted maintenance operations of like nature have been successfully integrated for minimum operations demanded by government purchase. At this time, except for those demanding immediate repairs, all other maintenance operations are awarded to private corporations.
1) Maintenance Works
  In order to keep freeways, bridges and the additional facilities in sound condition for safe traffic on a regular basis, a wide variety of maintenance measures have been adopted and, various maintenance works have been practiced by following different maintenance principles and methods for existing facilities. Again, as freeways are vulnerable to typhoons, earthquakes and damages by humans that result in interrupted traffic or unsafe travels among other risks, the maintenance agencies in this office are required to produce immediate report, repair or restoration assuring sound service at all times on freeways, which are expected to be used as life rescue line in case of disaster.
  Regular maintenance works involve repairs of freeway sub grades, pavements and shoulders, management and maintenance of freeway bridges and tunnels, drainage facilities, roadside landscaping and traffic facilities. Regular patrols in the jurisdictional sections are conducted by designated maintenance personnel; plans are prepared per road conditions and updated needs before assigning required works. As of late 2013, total distance requiring maintenance went at 1,054.6kms.
Tables of Maintenance Mileage
Routes
Route Mileage (km)
Interchange (place)
Service Area (area)
Remark
National Freeway No. 1
433.4
72
6
Containing Xiwu elevated road 58.2km.
National Freeway No. 2
20.4
5
-
 
National Freeway No. 3
432.9
63
7
Containing Nangang access road 1.4km.
National Freeway No. 3 Jia
5.6
3
-
 
National Freeway No. 4
17.2
4
-
 
National Freeway No. 5
54.2
6
1
 
National Freeway No. 6
37.6
7
-
 
National Freeway No. 8
15.5
4
-
 
National Freeway No. 10
33.8
5
-
 
Ji Lane of Tai No. 2 Provincial Highway
4.0
3
-
 
Total
1,054.6
172
14
 
.
2) Tunnel Management and Maintenance
  Of the 58 tunnels in the national freeways open for traffic, 2 are in National Freeway No. 1, 4 in National Freeway No. 3 Line A, 30 are in National Freeway No. 3, 10 in National Freeway No. 5, 6 in National Freeway No. 6 and another 6 in Tai 6 for a total distance of 81.402kms. The regional traffic control centers monitor all movements in the tunnels and all incidents are timely reported for immediate solution; vehicles carrying hazard materials are banned from traveling sections with tunnels (except for those having duly approved).
  In addition to daily patrols and monthly cleaning and lining in the night, all mechanical and electrical systems and traffic control facilities in the tunnels and machine rooms are checked on a weekly, bi-weekly, monthly, quarterly and annual basis. Management highlights are given per characteristics, function, safety demand and use for sound maintenance tasks. Each year, an overall equipment performance test is ordered for the sake of safe travel and comfortable travel environment.
Zhongliao Tunnel Zhongxing, Daye Tunnel

Zhongliao Tunnel

Zhongxing, Daye Tunnel

National Freeway Tunnels
Freeway No.
Tunnel Name
DrivingDirection
Starting and Ending Mileage
Length (m)
National Freeway No. 1
Zhongxing
Southbound
0k+000 ~ 0k+396
396
Daye
Southbound
0k+000 ~ 0k+556
556
Jia Lane, National Freeway No. 1
Taipei No.1 Tunnel
Eastbound
2k+026 ~ 2k+826
800
Westbound
2k+008 ~ 2k+798
790
Taipei No.2 Tunnel
Eastbound
0k+705 ~ 0k+897
192
Westbound
0k+682 ~ 0k+893
211
National Freeway No. 3
Keelung
Southbound
0k+805 ~ 2k+060
1,255
Northbound
0k+840 ~ 2k+118
1,278
Qidu
Southbound
5k+795 ~ 6k+325
530
Northbound
5k+745 ~ 6k+300
555
Xizhi
Southbound
8k+160 ~ 8k+826
666
Northbound
8k+175 ~ 8k+818
643
Fude
Southbound
18k+268 ~ 19k+994
1,726
Northbound
18k+185 ~ 19k-911
1,726
Muzha
Southbound
21k+888 ~ 23k-736
1,848
Northbound
21k+860 ~ 23k+735
1,875
Jingmei
Southbound
23k+939 ~ 24k+503
564
Northbound
23k+919 ~ 24k+492
573
Xindian
Southbound
27k+219 ~ 28k+404
1,185
Northbound
27k+170 ~ 28k+392
1,222
Bitan
Southbound
28k+559 ~ 29k+080
521
Northbound
28k+541 ~ 29k+044
503
Ankeng
Southbound
32k+626 ~ 33k+092
466
Northbound
32k+710 ~ 33k+108
398
Zhonghe
Southbound
34k+223 ~ 35k+095
872
Northbound
34k+262 ~ 35k-093
831
Puding No. 1
Southbound
59k+510 ~ 60k+040
530
Northbound
59k+510 ~ 60k+065
555
Puding No. 2
Southbound
60k+300 ~ 60k+635
335
Northbound
60k+325 ~ 60k+660
335
Dalin
Southbound
281k+696 ~ 281k+850
154
Northbound
281k+696 ~ 281k+850
154
Lantang
Southbound
292k+880 ~ 294k+134
1,254
Northbound
292k+880 ~ 294k+092
1,212
Zhongliao
Southbound
378k+780 ~ 380k+638
1,858
Northbound
378k+780 ~ 380k+605
1,825
National Freeway No. 5
Nangang
Southbound
0k+238 ~ 0k+694
456
Northbound
0k+235 ~ 0k+690
455
Shiding
Southbound
0k+783 ~ 3k+481
2,698
Northbound
0k+795 ~ 3k+515
2,720
Wutu
Southbound
7k+677 ~ 7k+893
216
Northbound
7k+646 ~ 7k+894
248
Pengshan
Southbound
9k+442 ~ 13k+303
3,861
Northbound
9k+457 ~ 13k+263
3,806
Hsuehshan
Southbound
15k+203 ~ 28k+128
12,925
Northbound
15k+179 ~ 28k+134
12,955
National Freeway No. 6
Guoxing No. 1
Eastbound
17k+678 ~ 20k+142
2,464
Westbound
17k+690 ~ 20k+138
2,447
Guoxing No. 2
Eastbound
24k+502 ~ 25k+037
535
Westbound
24k+522 ~ 25k+002
480
Puli
Eastbound
27k+469 ~ 28k+778
1,309
Westbound
27k+466 ~ 28k+728
1,262
Ji Lane of Tai No. 2 Provincial Highway
Zhongxiao
Southbound
0k+495 ~ 0k+913
418
RenAi
Northbound
0k+495 ~ 0k+913
418
Xinyi
Southbound
2k+570 ~ 2k+845
275
Heping
Northbound
2k+570 ~ 2k+770
200
Dawulun
Southbound
3k+260 ~ 3k+662
402
Daganlin
Northbound
3k+204 ~ 3k+662
458
Total
 
58
 
81.402 km
3) Inspection, Maintenance and Management of Bridges
  As transportation projects evolve, river bridges and overhead bridges are playing growingly important roles in transportation works. In Taiwan, bridges are vulnerable to frequent man-made destructions (collision impacts, fire) and disasters (such as earthquake and flood), regular tests are required for operational bridges along with sound data filing before safety evaluations based on damages suffered in bridges for plans for eventual maintenance and reinforcement remedies.
  When the National Freeway No. 1 was fully open for traffic in 1978, there were 245 bridges and today, there are 2,362 of them. As we become growingly responsible for maintenance and management of the bridges, of which the ones in the 30-and-odd-year-old National Freeway No. 1 are severely aging and tests and maintenance operations become imminent.
  By following the Bridge Test operating guidelines by Taiwan Area National Freeway Bureau, MOTC, the Region Engineering Offices in this bureau carry out regular inspections and tests to the bridges in their districts and the results are kept in the Taiwan Bridge Management System for reference of maintenance or reinforcement works.
The bridge management system plan diagram is shown below:
Freeway Bridge Management System Chart Freeway Bridges Test Categories
4) Management and maintenance of National Freeway slopes
 In Taiwan, because of the terrain, it would be hard to have national freeways built without having to conduct excavations for slopes, which are mostly of poor geologic conditions (such as joints and broken rocks) and vulnerability to frequent natural catastrophes (earthquakes and rainstorms); accordingly, it is necessary to conduct regular monitoring (testing) to slopes by national freeways while building complete databases aiming to assure servicelife maintenance and management before defining remedies based on slope safety evaluations.
  To keep the collapse of slopes occurred in April 2010 at 3.1K in National Freeway No. 3 from happening again while assuring sound control and management of national freeway slopes, this office launched the Reinforcement Project for National Freeway Slopes and, by following the flow process given in Fig. 1 and the scheduled specified in Table 1, management and maintenance works for national freeway slopes are carried out vigorously. After the aforementioned incident, an overall examination of national freeway slopes was conducted by this office and the full examination and patrol was completed in May 2010. Besides, of the 58 slopes for a full examination as proposed by the Project Team, 26 were set for immediate improvement and the rest, that is to say, 32 others were to meet improvement measures later on, as indicated in Table 2. For the sections where slopes are to be improved immediately, this office completed the installation of tilt tubes, water-level hoist and tilt gauges among other monitoring systems in August 2010. Fig. 2 shows the installation of the automated tilt tubes. The ground anchor test was conducted in December 2010, followed by the slope safety evaluation and reinforcement engineering in February 2011. The reinforcement engineering was fully completed on September 30 2011. Besides, for the other 32 slopes Project Team proposed for improvement works, ground anchor tests were completed in June 2011 and in August 2011, the slope safety evaluation and reinforcement engineering was ready. At this time, the reinforcement works are under way and are all scheduled to complete by August 31 2013.
  As ground anchors used in local construction works build experiences, problems have also be found and immediate solutions are needed. After the incident of ground anchor slope collapse in 2010 at 3.1k in National Freeway No. 3, safety and performance of ground anchors are major concerns. The process of the ground anchor test conducted by a dedicated firm appointed by this office is shown in Fig. 3. In the first place, it was to gather basic data of the slopes for visual inspection. Preliminary studies were focused on the safety of the slopes while numbering the ground anchors. Along with the weed of the slopes, a full inspection was conducted to the appearance, pressure structure and water seeping of all ground anchors. Based on the basic data gathered and the appearance checks and after thorough evaluation, highlighted ground anchors were selected for detailed examination and recording of the anchor head components and the steel studs on the rear after removing the RC seat. Later on, based on the examination of the anchor head components, a few ground anchors were chosen for endoscope checks of potential rusts and lifting tests with the purpose of determining the current conditions and the residual load weight as well as anchorage segment pull resistance of the ground anchors. Table 3 shows the items, description and purpose of the ground anchor test and Fig. 4 demonstrates the field operations. Finally, based on the basic data of the slopes and the test results, a performance evaluation for the ground anchor is given. If any ground anchor fails to meet the designated criteria or demonstrates other irregularities making it not apt for long-term use, an improvement program would follow for ongoing maintenance, reinforcement of replacement.
  In addition to the slopes in the sections of priority and other sections proposed by Project Team, to assure safety of the slopes in all sections, a fullscale inspection of slopes in other sections was conducted by this office in 2011 as part of National Freeway Slope Reinforcing Implementation Project. As of this day, there are 871 slopes in other sections, as indicated in Table 2. As of December 2011, ground anchor tests, safety evaluation and reinforcement designs had been completed for other sections and contracts for the reinforcement works will be awarded for construction in February 2012 for completion by August 31 2013 as scheduled.
  This office expects to complete the reinforcement works for the rest of the sections and other sections within 2 years, by August 31 2013. Besides, for the sake of safe slops by national freeways, this office will conduct slope patrols and monitoring works for the next 3~5 years as part of the slope safety and reinforcement works to assure safe travel.
Table 1: Project Schedule for National Freeway Slope Reinforcement Implementation
Description
Sections in priority
Other sections
Other sections
Ground anchor test
Completed on Dec. 15 2010
Completed on June 30 2011
Completed on Dec. 31 2011
Safety evaluation and reinforcement works
Completed on Feb. 15 2011
Completed on Aug. 31 2011
Completed on Dec. 31 2011
Reinforcement works begin
Works began on Apr. 1 2011
Works began on Sept. 1 2011
Contract awarded and works began on Feb. 15 2012
Reinforcement works completed
Completed on Sept. 30 2011
To be completed on Aug. 31 2013
To be completed on Aug. 31 2013
Table 2: National Freeway Slopes.
Description
A grade
B grade
C grade
D grade
Total (Slopes)
Northern Region Engineering Office
0
0
413
105
518
Central Region Engineering Office
0
0
81
84
165
Southern Region Engineering Office
0
0
106
150
256
Total (office)
0
0
600
339
939
Table 3: Item, Description and Purpose of G round Anchor Test.
Item
Description
Purpose
Protective seat appearance test
• Hammering test • Protective seat appearance test • Load structure appearance test • Load structure adjoining test • Water seepage situation view water quality test
• Ground anchor appearance (including protective seat, load structure and slope seepage) irregularity survey • Water corrosion
Anchor head
component check
• Anchor head clip & Steel stud corrosion view
• Component water seepage check
• Anchor head component corrosion and water
seepage situation
Endoscope check
• Anchor head back steel stud corrosion view • Free segment length measurement • Steel stud line spreading or breakage test • Free segment wet or water seepage
• Checking of the back of the anchor head stud corrosion, free segment length and water seepage situation
Lift-off Test
• Residual load weight measurement
• Ground anchor residual load confirmation
 

Fig. 1: Flow process of National Freeway Slope Reinforcement Works

 
Fig. 2: Automated measurement of tilt tubes
 
Fig. 3: Ground anchor performance evaluation flow process 
 
Fig. 4: Ground anchor function inspection photo
Date of Posting :2007-12-06
Source of Information:Construction Div.
Last Updated:2015-11-11